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The History of the Glarus Families, especially of the Sernf Valley

FLAG
by Gottfried Heer : The Martis

The History of the Glarus Families, especially Those of the Sernf Valley.
A Medley of Pictures from Past Days.
Zur Geschichte glarnerischer Geschlechter, derjenigen des Sernftales insbesondere.
Allerlei Bilder aus vergangenen Tagen.

By Gottfried Heer, 1920
Translated by Sue Wolf, 1999
[Chapter headings, lettered footnotes, bolding and information in brackets were added by the translator]

  THE MARTIS
Click on image to see a larger reproduction.

THE ANCESTORS / OFFICIALS / BENEFACTORS / TEACHERS / CLERGYMEN / DOCTORS OF MEDICINE / SERNF VALLEY OFFICIALS / ACCIDENTS & EVENTS / COAT OF ARMS

Those who still have before their eyes the 1891 commemorative folio in memory of the Swiss federation of August 1, 1291 know that at that time, in 1291, the Swiss used on their seal, not a white cross on the red field as today, but St. Martin (Martin of Tours), as he cut his cloak in two with his sword, in order to hand half of it to a poor, freezing old man. In that case, we are not surprised then also that, as Glarus became the canton of Fridolin, so Schwyz became likewise the canton of Martin and the Marti.

By the way, St. Martin was highly revered for many centuries 1, not only in the canton of Schwyz but in the whole of Helvetia and Rhaetia, indeed also far beyond it. The Martinloch above Elm gives evidence for that in the Sernf valley, like the Betschwanden church that St. Martin once consecrated in the great valley. And they built a great number of St. Martin churches in Swiss districts, from the little old church of St. Martin above Ilanz down as far as the border city of Basel, where St. Martin still offers the last greetings to the Swiss departing by the Rhine. And for the same reason, just as the family name of Marti or Martin is found in Schwyz and Glarus, so also it is found in a few other cantons, in Luzerne 2, Bern 3, Baselland, Neuenburg, etc.4

THE ANCESTORS

Nevertheless, our Glarner Martis are said to have come here from Schwyz over the Pragel [Pass] to the Linth valley. Steinmüller reports thusly: „According to an old land register lying in the archives, the Glarner family is descended from the Muotta valley in Canton Schwyz, from two brothers who, because they were among the men who helped to win the victory of Näfels on April 9, 1388, received from it cantonal rights in the canton. Their descendants have spread widely since then."

Whether the land register itself, which was quoted by Steinmüller, is still found there in the archives today is not known to me, and therefore I also do not know how far back they extend. According to tradition, one of the two brothers settled in Näfels, the other in the Sernf valley itself. The fact is that Martis are found in the 16th century both in the Sernf valley and in Näfels and Glarus 5. Thus the 1525 register, which has already been mentioned several times [in earlier chapters], introduces to us also a Hans Marti, who is obligated to pay tribute to the church of Matt: "Hans Marti on the Wissen mountain a Sol [coin] and a pound of barley on the Wissenboden estate, belonging to the house, adjacent to Wissenboden, on another side to Waldi creek, and on the third side to Bergisbül." This note is interesting for us in a material respect, because it proves that at that time barley was planted on the Weissen mountain, so we may see in the Hans Marti who was mentioned the ancestor of the Sernf valley Martis 6. At the end of the 16th century his descendants were still not very numerous. Whereas, during 1595-1617 in the Matt church 25 baptized children are found there from the Speich family, from the Marti family only just 7 of them are found: 3 children of Matthias Marti, who was married in 1603 to Margreth Elmer (Maria in 1607, Hans in 1608, and Matthäus in 1609); a child of Matthys Marti (who died in 1611) and Regula Schindler (Anna Maria in 1610); and 3 children of Councillor and Sechser 7 Matthäus Marti (who died in 1659, at over 70 years old) and Verena Bräm (Regula in 1612, Matthys in 1614, and Joss in 1617).

Whether Matthias Marti, husband of Margreth Elmer, and Mathys Marti, who was married to Regula Schindler, were two different personages, or the first-named got married in a second marriage to Regula Schindler, cannot be decided from the fragmentary condition of the record of that time. At any rate, in 1595-1617 only three, or perhaps only two, Martis (Matthias, Mathys, and Matthäus) are found registered as fathers. According to the information of the Glarner genealogist J. Kubli-Müller, even today descendants of neither Mathias Marti-Elmer nor Matthys Marti-Schindler are found in the Sernf valley. All the more numerous are the descendants of Councillor Matthäus Marti, as all the Martis of Engi, Matt and Elm recognize him as their ancestor, as descendants of his four sons, Matthys, Joss, Jakob and Hans. His son Jakob, born in 1622 and married to Maria Baumgartner (a councillor's daughter from Engi), had a son Matthäus, who in 1674 married Afra Bäbler, and two years later, in 1676, bought himself in as a citizen of Matt. From him stem the Martis from Matt. The Marti family, however, transplanted to Elm: Jakob Marti, who in 1685 acquired for himself the Elmer citizen rights for 70 Florins 8, and Samuel Marti, who in 1835 purchased the citizen rights for himself and his sons, Matthäus and Samuel, for 400 Gulden.

In 1763 the descendants of Councillor Matthäus Marti numbered 40 head-taxpayers in Engi and 8 in Matt, and in 1876 they numbered 71 in Engi, 25 in Matt, and 9 in Elm, consequently, 105 head-taxpayers in the entire Sernf valley.

Likewise, the descendants of other Marti branches, who at first had their place of residence in Glarus and Näfels, are not numerous. In 1763 the Martis in Glarus numbered 35 head-taxpayers and in Niederurnen and Bilten 9 5 each, while they were entirely extinct in Näfels itself. As the oldest church book of Mollis reports, various Martis from Näfels had joined the new faith and with it, according to the agreement of Epiphany, 1532, the church commune of Mollis, without that hurting their citizen rights in Näfels. Since, however, the majority of Näfels' citizens held true to the old faith, membership in the new beliefs could also have been a cause for emigrating to Niederurnen for Balthasar Marti, born in 1571, the son of a Hans Marti of Näfels. From this Standard-bearer Balthasar Marti, who was married to Maria Oswald, are descended, above all, four sons: Johannes, David, Fridolin and Bartholome. The first two, goldsmith Johannes Marti, Neuner a judge and councillor, who was married to Elsbeth Dinner, and knife- and sword-smith David Marti, who was married to Rosina Wichser, emigrated to Glarus and, according to information from Mr. Kubli-Müller, became the ancestors of all Martis from Glarus. Balthasar Marti’s third son, Fridolin, who was married to a Catholic, Anna Müller, returned to Näfels and was converted to the Catholic religion. However, his branch has been extinct since 1748, since both of his grandsons, the sons of Judge and Councillor Fridolin Josef Marti, died single in Naples. The fourth son, Bartholome, who was married to Susanna Stauffacher and was called Murer of Matt, remained in Niederurnen. The five Martis whom the cantonal tax roll of 1763 reported for Niederurnen stemmed from his two sons, Balthasar and Jakob. Since 1804, however, this branch has also withered, and the family of the Niederurnen Martis has become extinct. Even the number of Martis who were living in Glarus dropped between 1763 and 1876. In 1763 Glarus counted 35 tax-paying Martis (with assets of 97,900 Fl.), then in 1876 there were only still 18 of them (with assets of 265,000 Fr.). On the other hand, the tax-rolls of Ennenda, which in 1763 the Martis were not yet acquainted with, showed 10 of them (with a taxable property of 253,000 Fr.) in 1876.

For the whole canton the Martis numbered 156 head-taxpayers 10 in 1876, with a total property of 748,000 Fr., and thereby stand, in the first respect, in 10th place and, in respect to taxable property, in 31st place.

OFFICIALS
Cantonal Presidents / Bannerets / Cantonal Officials

Cantonal Presidents

Up until now, the Martis occupied the highest post of honors that the Glarner communes had to fill four times: Jakob Marti held the position of cantonal president in 1651-54, Fridolin Marti in 1664-66, Joh. Heinrich Marti in 1731-34 and Bartholome Marti in 1761-64.

The first-named of these four cantonal leaders, Jakob Marti, had been selected in May, 1649 to be the cantonal vice-president, and, as such, had attended a Confederation Diet in Baden for the first time on July 4, 1649, together with Cantonal President Balth. Müller. Moreover, he had helped to solve a question which was already occupying us earlier, as we considered sending Cantonal President, J. Heinrich Elmer, to Paris:11 plenipotentiaries of the free jurisdiction of Burgundy again appeared, who submitted the hereditary agreement money and asked the Confederation Diet to defend the neutrality of the free jurisdiction against the people from another power (France) who were threatening danger to it. They ventured their request all the more because they -- the inhabitants of the free jurisdiction -- were a people descended from Germany, who got along better with the "humor" of the old Confederation. So for them to be overthrown by another power, the situation was, on the other hand, that through its encroachment this would cause the Confederation to fortify its border and to maintain a border watch, which would be troublesome for the Confederation, as well as would continue to inconvenience trade and commerce. The Burgundian plenipotentiaries therefore suggested to the Diet, as it lay very much in the interest of both parties, that it enforce its laws for the defense of the free jurisdiction somewhat energetically. They also realized "that we are responsible and united, able to give the hereditary union of the Burgundian jurisdiction help and, for their necessity, to protect them". In the way of actual assistance, however, in 1649 they got as little as in 1638, and so the free jurisdiction, which had so readily sided with the Confederation, finally lost to France.

Another item on the agenda of the same July 1649 Diet probably affected Glarus and its envoy, Vice-President of the Cantonal Council Marti, even somewhat more closely. Peter Enderli, council member to Chur and the old city official of Maienfeld, had proposed to the Diet, in the name of the Three Leagues [now part of Canton Graubunden], that, as in the earliest times in Schwyz and Glarus, and contrary to the agreement of 1578, the number of sacks of grain which were allowed to pass from Weesen to the Leagues be limited and at the same time the duty be increased. Schwyz and Glarus answered afterwards: through the first decree they had wanted to prevent moving more grain, as the Three Leagues desired, and in that way increasing the shortage in the Confederation. On the other hand the supplies were being conveyed to the enemies 12. However, the increase in duties concerned only the business people and their misuse of them. All payable misunderstandings between the leagues and the two cantons would easily cancel themselves out. This answer was communicated to the Three Leagues. However, both cantons dismissed the complaint of the leagues with the remark that they were not blame for the increase in duties, as we remember that everywhere, even also in the Leagues, the duties increased to foster growing. (Confederation Decrees VI, p. 7)

In the same year of 1649 Marti had also attended a second -- extraordinary -- Diet in Baden, that had given occasion for the new complaints against the French king. Then, on July 2, 1651, he attended a Confederation session for the first time as cantonal president, and by that as the first envoy of Canton Glarus, while Balthasar Müller accompanied him now as "old cantonal president" and cantonal vice-president. And the same was the case at a few following Diets. However, on Dec. 4, 1652, he appeared on behalf of the Evangelical Canton Glarus at a conference of Evangelical cantons in [Canton] Aarau. He had to complain to them that not enough from the Catholic confession were willing to obey the agreement's provision, in accordance with which preachers or priests would be obliged to stand before the entire (joint) cantonal council for abuses in the Näfel’s Fahrt sermon f. The representatives of the Evangelical cantons backed the delegate from Glarus in his opinion that the Evangelical Glarnese themselves must not let such drop. They, therefore, gave him the advice that he invite the Catholics to Baden, even before the next Diet, to give the priests, who for some years had attacked and reviled the Evangelical religion to the highest degree, the punishment from the cantonal council, and also to express their readiness for such a position for the future. Such an announcement did not occur, so that the governments of the Evangelical cantons could be informed. Thus the next Diet will not fail to confer with the Catholic cantons about this.

The carrying out of this council then, however, probably did not take place, since, soon after that, an unexpectedly breaking storm shoved such small things into the background: the uprising of the Entlibuchs [Canton Lucerne] farmers, which soon spread also into the territory of the Bernese, Solothurners and Baselers. The authorities of these cantons were not a little scared, so they also asked the impartial cantons for assistance. Even Cantonal President Marti, therefore, attended different meetings, which had been occasioned by "the rebellious movement" of the farmers and in which those in the middle had to discuss their conquest. Under Lieutenant Melchior Trümpi, to whom, therefore, a council seat was awarded —"for his upright conduct" —, the Glarnese also assisted during the suppression of the uprising, and so, for his stand, Cantonal President Marti could also accept the thanks which the government of Bern expressed towards Zürich, Schaffhausen and Glarus in the conference of Jan. 21, 1654, for the help they rendered to them. In a conference of the 8 old cantons, held from Oct. 20-24, 1653, Cantonal President Marti recommended what ought to be done with regard to the complaints which had been raised by the subjects of territory under joint administration, their demands for "the abolishment of great and unnecessary expenses and the establishment of a better communal administration". We would willingly hear what Marti had presented in the name of the Glarner democrats to the goodwill of the leaders of the complaint. Yet the minutes gave us no information about that, and what we already found out on other occasions [discussed in the chapter on the Speichs] and likewise what we noticed on the occasion of the Werdenberg uprising, hardly lets us conclude after that that the Glarnese offered an ear inclined towards the complaints of their subjects, like the patricians of Zürich and Bern did.

In May, 1654, after his three-year term of office, Jakob Marti had surrendered the cantonal president’s mace again to a Catholic (Balthasar Müller, who recently held this post), as prescribed in the 1623 cantonal agreement. On the contrary, he was allowed to hold the post of banneret b no fewer than 35 years (1640-75).

The second cantonal president from the Marti family was Fridolin Marti, about whom we already mentioned a little while ago (above) that he returned to Näfels and also converted to the Catholic confession. His promotion to the post of cantonal president was perhaps a reward for his conversion from factions of his new faith community. The cantonal vice-president 13 in 1661-64, he held the office of cantonal president in 1664-66. Moreover, in 1665 he had to lead two stormy Landsgemeinden c. J. H. Tschudi reported about that in his Glarner Chronicle, p. 606: "When the envoys of both religions in Glarus, who collected the French [military] pension in Solothurn for the last year, got summoned that they really gave a receipt for 30,000 Fr. more than the local canton, however, received, people became very unruly about it in the canton, and both the Catholics and the Evangelicals, therefore, showed themselves to be so hot-tempered and zealous at their Landsgemeinden that the accused were compelled to make progress on the side, since they did not want the anger of the raging people to change into plundering. Eight days afterwards, the question of a common Landsgemeinde for both religions was taken up, and they realized that the defendants of the outgoing payment should submit to a then gathering Landsgemeinde once more within 4 weeks, and if it was not done, then another process would be undertaken with them. In the middle of this, two deputies had even been sent to Solothurn, who, according to actual investigation of the matter, afterwards were supposed to pay the peasants again, in view of their oaths in the minutes here. They finally saw that the mistake existed in a mere unselfishness, unless the defendants received some donations and gifts from the ambassador, much less something for which they gave a receipt, and not pensions which were handed over. On top of this, they were then to pay each fellow countryman a half Gulden. However, since, as regards the pretence, they were already in the sovereign chamber, the payment could not be made any more."

In the time of his cantonal presidency also fell the so-called Wigoldingen [Canton Thurgau] affair of unfortunate memory. Personally impartial with respect to this, Cantonal President Fridolin Marti was, of course, also still supposed to find out - and, to be sure, quite innocently - owing to the unpleasantness of that affair personally. To another conference of both cantons, Glarus and Schwyz, which was held on Sept. 2, 1665 in Einsiedeln [Canton Schwyz] for consideration of various objections (hereditary and boundary controversies), Cantonal President Marti had, instead, complained "that, in view of the Wigoldingen uprising coming from Baden, when he wanted to land and disembark at Hurder Fields (in the vicinity of Pfäffikon on Lake Zürich), he had been treated roughly with unkind words by our relatives from Schwyz, which affected his honor and good name. He was inclined, therefore, to bring them to account. He asked, therefore, for appropriate assistance, which, under the assurance of what was due, was taken to a referendum by Schwyz ". That Cantonal President Fr. Marti, although himself a Catholic, had had to experience such unkind, angry words by the defending Schwyzers showed distinctly, to be sure, to what measure the angry Wigoldingen affair had stirred up the denominational passions.

The third cantonal president from the Marti family was Joh. Heinrich Marti. Born on Oct. 28, 1684, he was the same son of J. Heinr. Marti and grandson of the cutler, David Marti of Glarus, who was mentioned above. In April, 1708 he had been named to the Evangelical Landsgemeinde as cantonal treasurer. On May 1, 1709 he was chosen as cantonal official in the Rhine valley and "he was obliged to give every farmer a tax of 14 Batzen 23 and also all the leftovers, as his forebears had". Although he was consequently out of the canton in 1710 and 1711, he was ratified by the April 30, 1710 Landsgemeinde as cantonal treasurer "for the 4 years still remaining ", while Church Official Johannes Marti was decreed to be his substitute for this time of his absence. In 1723 Cantonal Official J. Heinrich Marti was chosen, instead of the late Captain Streiffen, to be the cantonal captain throughout Los [Lauis = Lugano, Canton Ticino] [discussed in the chapter on the Elmers] and for this election was supposed to pay " into the treasury, according to the new plan, namely, 100 Crowns and 4 Dollars". On April 27, 1729, "instead of Cantonal President Joh. Peter Zwicki, Cantonal Captain Joh. Heinrich Marti" was then chosen „for cantonal vice-president by the ordinary Loos [people of Lauis]". The preceding election had decreed that the "future cantonal vice-president should pay into the treasury the 300 Fl. which had been decreed, along with tax, which was usually customary. Moreover, he should also be exempted from the tax and should be considered equal to the last cantonal president, Zwicki". Two years later, since the mace came to the Evangelicals again, he was then, "with unanimous voices, chosen to be a cantonal president". In the time of his cantonal presidency (1731-34) all kinds of events occurred, such as polluted water, cancer among the livestock, earthquakes, upon which even a cantonal president’s influence is without importance, but also the fortunate settlement of the Immi quarrel, which had been going on for a long time, during which Marti personally had taken part. Since olden times Zürich collected an Immi, "a certain measure, thus, was paid out of 4 Mütt 15 of crops going through", from those transporting grain there. Zürich had waived this tax temporarily with regard to Glarus. On the other hand, in 1715 the Glarner business people also suppressed it, because at that time the Landsgemeinde instructed the authorities to raise a protest against it. Actually, Zürich terminated Glarus anew with regard to the tax. It seems, however, that Glarner business people made use of it also for non-Glarner customers. All the more, in 1721, Zürich caused the Immi to be collected all over again. On command of the Landsgemeinde, in 1721 and 1724 the Glarus council raised protests anew against them and brought the matter before the Diet, since Zürich wouldn't agree. This body, however, graciously rejected the Glarner request for the time being, since then representatives from Zürich (the councillors, old Treasurer Joh. Conrad Escher and Treasurer Joh. Fries) and Glarus (Cantonal President J. H. Marti and Vice-President J. Ulr. Tschudi) met in a conference on March 3, 1732 in Rapperswil [Canton Zürich] and, after lengthy talking back and forth 14, also under the reservation of ratification, reached a compromise, according to which, instead of the Immi tax, only an entirely moderate tax should be paid on the actual grain which was definitely for Glarus. On the other hand, protective regulations kept the abuse of this favor at a distance.

That settlement, which was thus agreed upon and later ratified by both cantons, grants us an insight into the customs barriers which the cantons set up at that time against one another, such as in the transport and business relations of that time. For this reason we want to include it here in full:

„1. The tariff in the city of Zürich amounted to 6 Haller [pennies] per Mütt 15."

„2. From now on, instead of the Immi being paid in kind out of 4 Mütt, with retention of Zürich's rights, it shall be paid by money at the rate of 4 Zürich Angster [copper coins] or a full Kreutzer [coin] for each Mütt that was bought outside of the jurisdiction of Canton Zürich from our relatives of Canton Glarus and sold by them. Of course, at any rate, the grain shall be sold to the store in Zürich and shall just be unloaded and loaded there, in the further opinion that this only applies to the grain from the land use of Canton Glarus, and that, of the grain in transit, nothing is to be unloaded elsewhere or sold to small grocery shops, neither in the Zürich district, nor towards Utznach [Canton St. Gallen], nor in the Gas valley (Gaster) [Canton St. Gallen], nor in the borderland. In the end, Zürich reserved for itself the right to produce attestations 16 of their authority at any time, in case they needed to negotiate an agreement with the Glarner grain merchants or to stop them."

„3. The Glarner grain which was stopped in transit did not remain standing over 8 days in the grain house in Zürich, so they paid no enrollment fee. However, if it remained over 8 days, then a Schilling per sack was paid."

„4. One Schilling was paid to carry a sack onto the ship."

„5. The money for unloading in the city of Zürich would amount to 5 Schillings for a wagon of 8 sacks and below. If there were more than 8 sacks on it, then they paid according to previous custom."

„6. In the lower communes of the Thur river [Canton Thurgau] the wagon paid 6 Haller, according to previous practice."17

Pastor J. Ulrich Legler remarked in his book, "Experiment at Freedom", of Cantonal President Marti, who took part successfully in this negotiation: "Cantonal Captain and President Joh. Heinrich Martin, a man of great merit, according to general admission around our republic, died in the year 1748."

The fourth cantonal president from the Marti family was Bartholomäus Marti, born in 1715 as the son of the previously mentioned cantonal president, Joh. Heinrich Marti. The title of a cantonal vice-president, the preliminary stage to the cantonal president's office, was conferred on him by the Evangelical Landsgemeinde of April 25, 1759. The Landsgemeinde minutes report about that: "The cantonal president's office this year remained, according to the rotation, with our Catholic middle-country gentlemen. Religion's influence declined, and along with this the cantonal vice-president's office was appointed from the Evangelical religion’s side of the house. However, now, and by this change, for the benefit of bars to come, this office might be filled by more honorable leaders 18, as gentlemen and peasants have considered and recognized with favor that five 19 gentlemen had to work in Lauis for this cantonal vice-president's office. Then there was the amendment that, in the future, the most recent ex-cantonal president, upon his leaving office, was supposed to take a turn, namely 5 years long, in the Stillstand d because of attaining the cantonal vice-president's office. Whereupon, honorary Colonel and Councillor Bartholome Marti was chosen, thanks to the people of Lauis, to be our cantonal vice-president."

When, according to the minutes, Barth. Marti thus was installed as colonel, he received this title as a result of his position in the Dutch services. For a long time the Reformed Glarnese, who carried their passion for the military profession into foreign military services, had also served under the French flag. The brutal politics of conquest of Louis XIV, who imposed his rule on the neutral free jurisdiction of Burgundy in an unlawful and traitorous way 20, without respect for the objections of the Confederation, which for centuries, along with the old Confederation, had been friends with the city of Strassburg 21, and who built the Hünigen fortress under the noses of the Baselers 22, as well as his incessant rape of our faith-relatives, the Huguenots, finally crushed it [Burgundy] completely, so that, like Zürich and even Bern, the Evangelical Glarnese also disentangled themselves from France and, instead of that, came to an agreement with the States-General of Holland about re-enlistment. So Bartholome Marti was working in the Dutch service in 1732 as well, and in 1742 was promoted to captain. In the campaign of 1745 (the War of Austrian Succession) he commanded a company of infantrymen and was said to have been singled out for distinction at the siege of Tournai [Belgium]. In October 1747 the then Captain Barthol. Marti, and with him two other Glarnese, Wyss and Zweifel, had applied to the council for permission for each of them be allowed to recruit a company. Cantonal President J. Heinrich Marti recommended his son Bartholome's request for permission to the council, Councillor Wyss for his brother and Cantonal Official Frid. Streiff for Captain Zweifel. The council believed, since the Landsgemeinde earlier had given permission for recruitings for favors from Holland, that these new recruitings of themselves should also be allowed. "But," recounts Cantonal President Christof Streiff in his journal, "that didn't please the peasants, that they were allowed the recruitings for new companies before they first requested the protection of the peasants. Of these, perhaps about 50 men joined forces, went to the governing cantonal president (Othmar Zwicki) and demanded an (extraordinary) Landsgemeinde. This was then presented to the first-held Evangelical council, and Marti himself demanded a Landsgemeinde. This was then proclaimed in the Tagwen e, and it was held on Sunday, Oct. 25, 1747, where the peasants appeared in very large numbers. They worked about 1 hour at the Landsgemeinde and the cantonal president, Othmar Zwicki, had made a speech that peace is a wonderful treasure, as is peace put into action. Afterwards Cantonal President Marti had made a speech and had requested, with his son, Councillor Weiss, and Cantonal Official Fridolin Streiff, as well as Procurator Dinner, for all three new captains to be accepted as cantonal companies, in exchange for an appropriate fee. However, because Marti spoke all too long and the peasants became annoyed and grumbled, he had to break off, and Cantonal Official Streiff repeated the request yet anew. They put it to a motion, firstly Cantonal President Zwicki, who recommended that the cantonal companies be accepted. The fees due for services were supposed to be paid into the treasury and Evangelical arsenal, and each peasant was to be given 3 Batzen 23 from each company. Since the above-mentioned view persisted 24, I [C. Streiff] had advanced the second question, that I recommended an Oertli 25 fee. This was confirmed 26, and the gunnery tax was added by Envoy Legler on top of the Oertli. Six Batzen and ½ Fl. also were recommended. During this, Church Official Schindler arrived and convinced the authorities that they allow the recruiting to attack the peasants with regard to their freedom after all. Thereby the peasants, who were quite disgruntled, became wild and furious, and they had to proceed for a long time, until finally around 5 o’clock they made the decision, and, first of all, the 6 Batzen was the majority. However, they had grumbled so just for the benefit of the people gathered in the arena that they finally adopted the Oertli and the gunnery tax. Judging by this, it was brought to bear that they should allow no more concessions during the oath except those which cantonal companies have. However, since the peasants had mostly dispersed by this time, for that reason they wanted to postpone this until the Schwanden Landsgemeinde. Since the leaders and the council were alone then in wanting to go home from the arena, a few unruly peasants, such as, first of all, the tailor Cossmann Elmer, other Elmers, Joss, Fritz, etc., came together and had not wanted the gentlemen to be allowed to go until they decided during the oath that it was the majority that they give no concessions except those which cantonal company have."

„On Friday, Oct 30th, Captain Bartholome Marti arrived here, as a new major, to make the rounds on the Saturday after that."

So it was in 1747. Until 1759, and his appointment as cantonal vice-president, the newly named Major Barthol. Marti was promoted „in appreciation of his service" in 1749 to first lieutenant and in 1750 to colonel 27, and then to serve his homeland again for 5 years, in 1759 to 1761 as cantonal vice-president and in 1761-64 as cantonal president. According to general opinion, he administered this office with „discretion and versatility". However, I know of no special event from this to set off his administration. On the other hand, 11 years later, in 1775, he appeared unexpectedly once more on the scene to have to preside over a Landsgemeinde. On Sunday, April 26th, the Landsgemeinde had deliberated about the case of the so-called Brigadier affair (a complaint against General J. Heinr. Schindler) until „late evening". Monday, April 27th. At 9 A.M. the negotiations were resumed before the assembled people, who were again numerous. During the negotiations regarding General Schindler, Cantonal Treasurer Paravicini had carried the mace in place of Cantonal Vice-President Schindler, who had to retire because of his relationship with the accused in the strike. After the conclusion of the Brigadier affair, he [Paravicini] wanted to hand over the mace again to Cantonal Vice-President Schindler. However, during the stormy and agitated negotiations concerning General Schindler, he [Schindler] became thoroughly „hoarse" – which hardly surprises us –, so that the further administration of the Landsgemeinde was impossible for him. For this reason, he [Paravicini] wanted the mace handed over to the person with the closest standing in status, old Cantonal President Barthol. Marti. However, a motion was made at once against it, as the Landsgemeinde minutes reported, „if the mace could not be delivered to him [Schindler] because Jakob Tschudi protested against him, he had some sympathy with that about him, Tschudi, who was in charge of 36 men and at the same time got in under would-be forbidden practices". Because of the wrongful accusations which were circulated about General Schindler regarding „soul selling", etc. the peasants had gotten terribly excited, and a stormy Landsgemeinde held the viewpoint that Cantonal President Marti, Schindler’s brother-in-law, had given the recommendation to them that they appoint a number of men for his [Schindler’s] personal protection. He had given this recommendation, no doubt, in remembrance of the Landsgemeinde of 1765, on the occasion of which one of the cantonal leaders had received blows. However, since, with the execution of these instructions, he had made use of skilled men somewhat improperly, and the illegal recruiting became public, he poured oil on the fire. That is why the motion now, that old Cantonal President Marti is so burdened by the on-going proceedings that he can’t carry the mace. Marti immediately surrendered the mace, which he already held in hand, to the cantonal sergeant-at-arms and asked permission from the Landsgemeinde for a short justification. This was granted to him, and Cantonal President Marti told how he had decided to give that advice to his brother-in-law. It had been certainly unwise, as he himself now realized. But, he added: „it is surely the shopkeeper failing to notice the clever goose out of the egg, or your rulers, the peasants." This public confession that he had acted unwisely satisfied the excited peasants, and „after the justification that he made had been taken into the inquiry, he was consulted about the high authority of the cantonal president’s title, and consequently the mace and the execution of the still-remaining business was relinquished and ordered to him by an almost unanimous majority."

„On Nov. 6, 1786", reported Pastor Johannes Marti in his sequel to Chr. Trümpi’s Glarner Chronicle, „General-Major and old Cantonal President Barthol. Marti, colonel of a regiment in Holland, was laid to rest in Glarus. He was a credit to our government. In his imposing and well-built body lived a mind of the most exceptional talents. Among them are delineated a fine wit, breathtaking eloquence, charming geniality, which captivated all hearts, compassion and gentleness, even sometimes at the expense of principles and to the detriment of good order 28. He could hurt no one. He performed useful service for the fatherland in and outside of the country."

Bannerets

Next to the position of cantonal president, that of banneret counted as the highest honorary office in past centuries, as we already remarked on an earlier occasion [in the chapter on the Elmers]. In addition to the already named banneret, Cantonal President Jakob Marti (1640-75), Sebastian Marti had held the same office from the Marti family. He had been in this office from 1621-35 and had also represented Canton Glarus repeatedly in the Confederation sessions. (Confederation Decrees V, 2, pg. 278, 509.)

Cantonal Officials

Among the cantonal officials whom Canton Glarus had to send off into its various areas of domination are found a full dozen from the Marti family. Melchior Marti, who had also represented the local canton several times in the Confederation Diet, went to the important province of Baden 29 in 1597 and 1613. In 1622 he was also sent to Paris as envoy to King Louis XIII. Likewise, at the time of the „federation troubles", he led the Glarner troops to Graubünden.

In the Free District [Canton Aargau], Fridolin Marti held office in 1671, and in 1729 the later cantonal president, Joh. Heinrich Marti. On April 25, 1770 Major and innkeeper of „The Eagle" David Marti was named as cantonal official for the same province by the Evangelical Landsgemeinde. Along with the fixed obligations, he was obliged to give nine Batzen to each peasant. But already, before he was able to accede to his office there, the Glarus council brought a charge against him that he „had acted in the well-known grain transaction contrary to the obligations of his oath" (Landsgemeinde minutes from April 24, 1771). The council therefore didn’t want to admit him to the achievement of oath-practitioner. The Landsgemeinde 30, however, authorized him to do this, and thereupon Marti could assume his office in the Free District. But soon he gave occasion here also for new complaints. In connection with a conference in session in August 1772 in Baden, which Cantonal President Kosmus Heer and Cantonal Vice-President Balthasar Hauser from Glarus attended, „various charges were preferred against Cantonal Official Martin [sic] because of money extortion, in view of which he had employed Michel Bock of Niederwil, called Feathered Michel, as the negotiator." The cantonal official, who was summoned before the syndicate, couldn’t appear, owing to illness. Nevertheless the investigation continued, and the result of it was compiled into a „brief" and attached to the decree. The people who were implicated by the cantonal official’s offence were judged, and the cantonal official stood silent on the government’s business until settlement of the matter. Glarus had to appoint an investigating magistrate 31 and to let him be sworn in in Zürich 32. Meanwhile, the administration of the official’s duties was transferred to the chancellery. Immediately after his convalescence the cantonal official had to defend himself against the severe charges alleged against him, be it in front of the delegated commission of either Baden or Bremgarten or before the supreme powers themselves.

On January 31, 1773 Cantonal Official Marti stood in Bremgarten before a commission of the cantons of Zürich, Bern and Glarus. „After the reading of the pertinent article of last year’s decree from Baden and the counts of the indictment, and after the hearing of Cantonal Official Martin’s defense, the following verdict was passed on him:"

„1. Cantonal Official Martin had forfeited the further confidence of the authorities through his offences and has been considered unqualified for the further administration of the cantonal duties and has been dismissed from his office."

„2. Martin had returned the funds still existing into the hands of those from which it had been extorted (the names of those affected unfavorably and the amounts of the extorted money were stated)."

„3. Martin had surrendered the money received for bribery to the hands of the supreme powers (the instances of the bribery were stated)."

„4. Three illegal arrangements were annulled. Martin had no more money to demand in connection with the persons in question."

„5. On account of his greed, which was punishable as vile, Martin had forfeited a fine of 80 new Doubloons. He was being consulted about Heinrich Huffchmieds’ charges. The verdict should become public in the lower jurisdiction of the official for the attention of the whole canton. However, the appeal of the sentence was held in reserve. Moreover, the decrees that were made by the syndicate in Baden were left as they were. The investigating magistrate who was appointed was instructed that, whenever anything else suspicious or punishable should become apparent about a not yet punished person or about a person under consideration, according to the law, regulations and fairness, and depending on circumstances, he was to act with leniency." (Confederation Decrees VII, 2, p. 885.)

The following held office as cantonal officials in the Rhine valley: in 1710 Joh. Heinrich Marti (the Cantonal President J. H. Marti shown above), in 1742 Bartholome Marti and in 1758 Neuner Judge Joh. Heinrich Marti, as substitute for his father-in-law, J. Christof Streiff 33, who died during his term of office. Fridolin Marti held office as cantonal official in Locarno in 1638, Rudolf Marti in Werdenberg in 1584-87, and Melchior Marti in 1674 34.

BENEFACTORS

If these cantonal officials, through the administration of their power, were holding office from time to time outside the canton, others, such as Cantonal President Barthol. Marti, sought their living in foreign military service 35, as, again, the affairs of other Martis had lead them out into the world as business people. Of them we will at least present two here, because, in spite of their absence from Canton Glarus, they proved their attachment to their Glarner homeland through their achievement. The first of these business people who „made his fortune" in the world abroad was Heinrich Marti in Lübeck, who, in the Hunger Year of 1816-17, bequeathed 2000 Gulden to the government of Glarus for assistance in planting. The other was Joh. Rudolf Marti, who, through a legacy to his name, had created a permanent remembrance. Annually we find listed, under the Special Funds in the appendix of the Landsgemeinde memorials, the „Marti Foundation Fund", which, at the end of 1919 had attained the high point of 243,526 Fr. In the year 1807, while living in Riga [Latvia], the businessman, J. R. Marti, whom I mentioned just now, made a bequest of 941 Fl. 43 Kr.36 to his homeland, with the request that this money, „gathered for unfortunates in a time of need, might be used some day for our later descendants, for their prosperity and fullest benefit". He accompanied his bequest with the following provisions:

„1. This fund shall be under the public authority of 4 members, that is,
a) the actual president or highly esteemed honorary cantonal president,
b) that clergyman in the canton to whom the education of children lies especially near his heart,
c) the communal head or Tagwen official of Glarus,
d) me, and after my death, my nearest relative."

„This committee looks after the security of the capital, that
2. 120 years in rent should remain, when it then, according to the attached calculation, must amount to Fl. 177,286.31 Kreuzer 37, on which no more than 4½ % interest should have been received, making it quite secure to invest. Also nobody would be allowed more than 5000 Fl. in interest, in order that each honest man had use of it."38

„3. In the year 1927 the interest must amount to over 7977 Fl.. Of this, then, 4000 Fl. will be turned over. The remainder will be allowed to accumulate for so long, until the interest amounts to over 9000 Fl.. Then 5000 Fl. yearly will be turned over from it for so long, until the interest amounts to 12,000 Fl., and in this proportion it will always be continued, so that, for the sake of the descendants, more may always be taken care of."

„4. The committee shall then make the most purposeful and conscientious use of this interest yield, that is to say, in the way that those children from poor parents (since the rich can allow theirs to be educated at their own cost) are selected from all the schools in the canton, without exception of their religion, who have shown evidence of their marked diligence and greater aptitude. These then are permitted to train in better, higher schools for their future destiny, be it in the cantonal industry and trade, or as a scholar, soldier, artist, or merchant, for whatever the boys have the most preference and genius. Naturally it would be best if such educational institutions were themselves in the canton. However, since this can hardly ever be attained, such higher schools must be attended abroad. These pupils in the boarding school enjoy all instruction, as long as their diligence and moral behavior perseveres, without the slightest costs. However, after completing their studies, they will have an obligation, when they someday make their fortune, to render a contribution to this foundation, according to whether their circumstances allow it and their good heart makes it voluntary, for, by means of such contributions, it grows larger for their poor descendants, since nothing in the world remains still, but should always be progressing and improving."

„The existing committee has held the promissory notes in trust, kept the books and accounts, and in due course, when expenditures had occurred, filed a report to the high authorities yearly from the administration. In particular, notice will be included by the clergyman about each pupil in the boarding school concerning both his intelligent and moral state for the purpose of giving a report about both, and through this vigilance also creating benefits for others and good example, and for some day putting each pupil’s beginning and completed course before the eyes of the public. – The good daughters shall in no way be excluded from this foundation. Although they don’t require the scholarly education to such a degree, so, all the same, for those poor daughters who distinguish themselves in school through special diligence, youth and merit, their education shall be provided for them according to the circumstances of the time. And for each such poor but deserving daughter three Louisd’or [French gold coins] will be kept for her, and when she gets married after that, this will be sent to her on her wedding day by the committee, as well as then, indeed, just as much at the birth of her first child. With that the good mother, through this small consideration, will be asked also to recommend to her children some day the young people who are worthy of respect."

TEACHERS

As long as this J. R. Marty foundation testified to the meaning for education, so it was very proper to add the brief autobiography of a man who reached a place of honor in the story of the Glarner primary school system. Teacher Burkhard Marti of Glarus (born December 14, 1803, died May 21, 1858), didn’t yet rank among the teachers who had been educated at the teacher training college, but he had towered greatly over these through his untiring enthusiasm for learning and teaching and for his promotion of the school system in his home commune of Glarus. As president of the cantonal teachers’ association and also author of the first language book for the cantonal school system, he gained significant merit. Already at the age of eight he had been withdrawn from the school, since he had to earn his livelihood, first as a wool-carder boy, and later as a printer. On the other hand, during his factory work, he did not give up the learning begun in school, but it continued untiringly in the midday and evening hours. A very old Bible, which the nine-year-old boy was hardly able to carry, was his favorite book during his self-studies. And as he zealously continued his learning, so he also began his teaching early. Already, as a wool-carder boy, he gave other wool-carder boys lessons in reading, and then continued this teaching activity also as a printer.

The pastor, J. Heinrich Heer, who at that time was active in Glarus as a highly meritorious clergyman and patron of the school system, became aware of the pupil, so studious and distinguished because of his moral-religious seriousness, who also excelled through his producing answers from his own thinking, and prepared him for the teaching profession by lessons which he conferred on him. Soon he [Marti] also received a place as student teacher in the educational institution of a Matthias Kundert in Glarus, and when then, in 1823, a third elementary school was established in Glarus (until 1823 the capital of Glarus had to be satisfied with two teachers for its primary pupils!), Marti, who was hardly 20 years old, was appointed to it, thanks to the efforts of his teacher, Pastor J. Heinr. Heer. Besides Marti, the landlord of „The Grapes" Freuler, a man without education and liking for youth education, had himself also applied for the place, and he went around the commune, from house to house, to recommend himself. Moreover he was said to have portrayed Marti as a young „blow-hard". In order to refute these attacks Pastor Heer composed a letter of recommendation for Marti, in which he testified to his knowledge and aptitude. This letter of recommendation was circulated in the commune and read out in the printer rooms. Likewise, Pastor Heer personally stood up warmly for him at the communal election. This intercession of the universally highly esteemed Pastor Heer, as well as the support of the factory workers for their former co-worker, furnished Marti with the victory. In 1835, then, Marti received the uppermost school class. Obviously one of his former pupils reported in the New Glarner Journal on the occasion of his death (in 1858), „Now more than ever he was so suitable in the position. There he could better display his intellectual wings. There he could really lay open his love of the Bible for the benefit and profit of his large number of pupils. Certainly there, in his religion lessons, which were lessons of edification to him personally at the time, had Marti put many a splendid seed in the hearts of his listening pupils, and these seeds, they have certainly fallen on good ground with many, very many. The multiple demonstrations of devotion, love and piety which he received both from the commune itself during his long illness, and also from societies and from many high-minded male and female friends testify in favor of it."

The school was, above all, Marti’s field of work; consequently he had also taken part sincerely in the musical and singing life of the capital. He had received „some two dozen lessons in organ playing" with Pastor Kubli in Netstal. In spite of this short preparation, he achieved true mastery at organ playing through his untiring diligence and owing to his outstanding musical talent. One could still often hear his soulful playing praised 30 or 40 years ago. Also other communes consulted with him as an expert on the buying of organs. In 1824 he also founded a mixed choir and in 1827 his men’s choir, whose enthusiastic president he remained until in his 40th year.

CLERGYMEN

The list of Glarner clergymen numbers no fewer than 10 Martis who were active as clergymen for Christian education and the instruction of youth:

Johannes Marti, pastor of Elm in 1682-92, of Betschwanden in 1692-1703. Here he drew up for the first time a list of all the families of the commune, which was considered to be a very meritorious work.

Jakob Marti, pastor of Betschwanden 39 in 1732-49, deacon of Glarus 40 in 1749 until his early death in 1757.

Johannes Marti, pastor of Elm in 1737-54.

Peter Marti, deacon in Glarus in 1766-1811.

Johannes Marti, pastor of Kerenzen in 1766-74, then the first pastor of the Ennenda commune, which detached from Glarus in 1774, in 1774-1801.

Balthazar Marti, pastor of Netstal in 1799-1801, successor to his father, Johannes, as pastor of Ennenda in 1801-36, dean 1831-36. After the reintroduction of the joint Fahrtsfeier 41 f he had to officiate, on April 7, 1836, as the first Reformed Fahrt preacher.

David Marti, pastor of Luchsingen in 1802-07, assistant of Mollis 1807-44.

Adam Marti, son of Dean Balthazar Marti, pastor of Mollis in 1833-82.

Johannes Marti, son of Dean Balthazar and grandson of Johannes Marti, pastor of Niederurnen in 1835-36, of Ennenda in 1836-74, dean in 1849-63 and 1866-69.

Sebastian Marti, nephew of the preceding, pastor of Elm in 1890-1905, pastor of Glarus since 1905, and at present, dean.

DOCTORS OF MEDICINE

Also, more Martis are found among the doctors of medicine. In 1730 Bartholome Marti doctored 42 in Strassburg 43. He also was a member of the council in 1741 and in 1750 officiated as examination judge in the famous perch trial. In 1746 Kaspar Marti doctored 44 in Basel, and in 1766 his nephew Johannes Marti 45. Above all, the last-named won himself great merits as a doctor in the area of public hygiene. One of the devastating illnesses at that time was smallpox. Returning to his homeland in 1767 after successfully completing his studies, Dr. Joh. Marti took up the fight against it, in that he immediately introduced the vaccination. In his book, „Some physical, medical and economical subjects of public benefit", he told about it himself, among other things (p. 59ff.): „In the year 1767, at the time when all doctors usually had still rejected vaccinating as a dangerous, unauthorized, indeed sinful act, I had introduced it into our canton and disseminated it with great success. While it was still not much under way in Switzerland, to be sure, indeed, it was universally under way in England and other countries, despite obstacles also being put in the way over there by means of scholarly refutations to it. Also, my success promoted me so much that I had vaccinated approximately 3000 children before I came up against one who died of severe teething-related illness. This slowed down my rapid progress for a while, but more still what presented material for having doubts was that, for a few other doctors, who had also vaccinated children and had pronounced it to be well-done, the trouble started again. That when smallpox was rampant in the canton, their children had again been struck by it as well, and indeed often soon after their vaccinations. This came about, accordingly, because these men, in the opinion that it was very good to do, had selected the most beautiful, ruptured smallpox for the vaccination, which, because the pus had already become sterilized and too gentle, were worthless for the infecting. While I myself, on the other hand, in view of this, had always considered the most unruptured and contaminating ones better, since they assuredly and quickly infected and were accompanied with the most favorable success, which the Englishmen had also observed. I continued on uninterrupted with my innoculations. At that time, however, we vaccinated only with the natural smallpox, which was accompanied by many troubles and worries. Indeed, as soon as I had made the acquaintance of the more reliable cowpox 46 and had tested it, I began to give it free to each one who wanted it, which only happened in order to spread the good cause more, and in no way was supposed to curtail the rights of other doctors, who understood it as well as I. The smallpox vaccination is and remains one of the greatest benefits which the medical profession can render to the human race, indeed so great that through it they will uproot the terrifying smallpox plague entirely, as soon as all the people are convinced sufficiently of it one day through prolonged experience. However, so long as there are still people who neglect the vaccination from ignorance, and the police do not prevent smallpox patients from being transported, either through the canton or from one commune to another, the epidemic will never entirely disappear. Nevertheless, because of the great number of people who are already vaccinated, who stand in its way and prevent its spread, from now on we will never more see universal defeats and atrocious mutilation and disfigurement of the children like that, as we have unfortunately often experienced. I also hope through it to achieve the same benefit, so that I promised to pay 100 new Dollars to anyone vaccinated by me, if he could prove sooner or later that he had been attacked again by the natural smallpox. However, nobody has come yet to fetch the 100 new Dollars, although I have often vaccinated wagons full of poor children, which they brought to me, all at the same time. It could not be missed by supervisors, who had gladly conveyed such a message to me, how a few marks have happened by mistake, whereupon I have then immediately taken my seat on horseback and set out on the spot. So all marks, fortunately, have revealed the inaccurateness of the matter, and the people who were present were convinced from it, which I recorded at the time and have added to my own list."

As he confronted the smallpox epidemic through dissemination of the vaccination, so also he busied himself through the instruction of midwives, to prevent the nasty consequences which, according to his experience, the incompetence and inexperience of these people brought about in many cases, which had caused the deaths of mothers and children. Likewise he earned the same merit as he discovered the salutary effects of the Stachelberg sulfur springs and recommended their use to patients and doctors with success. Through his meteorological journal, which he kept for 45 years (1773-1818), he had also rendered science a service, since it furnished valuable material for works of our famous naturalist, Oswald Heer.

SERNF VALLEY OFFICIALS

Dr. Johannes Marti (born in 1745, died in 1819), like both the other doctors of medicine mentioned a while ago, and like the 10 pastors from the Marti family, without exception belonged to the Glarner branch of the Martis. They will not blame me, however, that I can’t introduce either any teachers or any cantonal presidents from the Sernf valley Marti family. Obviously the latter have been content with that, to be providing for their own families and the immediate community 47. Among the councillors of Engi-Matt are found various Martis who took part in legal proceedings and other affairs in their communes. Thus Christ. Trümpi, in his Glarner Chronicles, pg. 719f., mentioned 4 Martis among the 13 councillors who represented the Matt-Engi Tagwen in 1700-74: Johannes and Fridolin Marti in 1700, Joss Marti in 1714, and Mattheus Marti in 1758. For Elm he had to mention only Beat Marti, who joined the council in 1769. We will probably encounter one or another of these on a later occasion, when we get around to telling about the agriculture, dairy farming, and forestry of the Sernf valley.

ACCIDENTS & EVENTS

For today I have only still to mention two events which put individual families from the Marti family into severe grief. About the first of these events, the Trümpi Chronicles reported (p. 472): „On the night of Hornung [February] 4/15th g, 1720 a stable, together with a little mountain house, and small and large livestock, was crushed in the Emmat mountains above Ennenda by an avalanche. Moreover, two men lost their lives. On the 7/18th near Engi in the Gufel a snowball like that had enveloped and pushed aside a house with a large household of 10 people, likewise a stable and livestock. The husband (Sergeant Samuel Marti) was dead, along with 4 children. The mother, badly crushed, was dug out alive, along with 4 children. A collection for the widow and children was taken up in the church."

The second of the mentioned events, which obviously excited the sympathy of the farthest districts, affected the family of a councillor, Adam Marti of Engi. Matt’s Book of Death reported about it under March 9, 1817: „Barbara Marti, the only beloved daughter of Councillor Adam Marti of Engi, fiancée of Fridolin Winteler of Mollis, born November 4, 1798, died in her 19th year of age. This radiant person, the ornament of our village, the pride of her father and the joy of her mother, wanted to go to Mollis on Wednesday, March 5th, with her fiancé and a girlfriend from Inspector of Weights and Measures Jos. Hämmerli’s wife’s house. At half past 12 they left the parental house with no premonition of bad luck, full of joy and youthful courage. But they were scarcely a quarter of an hour on the way, when the Elmelen avalanche plunged down upon them with unusual speed and force, and flung all three irretrievably downwards into the Sernf. The entire commune was summoned to dig out the towering snow masses, but all efforts were in vain. Not until about half past 6 in the evening was the corpse of the above-mentioned person found near the Sool footbridge on the Sernf. On Sunday, March 9th, just on the day when her wedding should have been announced, she was buried in the earth during a large funeral procession. Both of the other people could not be found so far, regardless of all efforts employed."48

COAT OF ARMS

The Marti coat of arms displays a gray pine marten [Marder] on its yellow field. If by that would be suggested that the Marti family name be traced back to Marder, that would certainly be a bold and very inept hypothesis, in which the preference for coat of arms animals 49 misled. They would have been much more justified to have St. Martin of Tours on their coat of arms.


[All lettered footnotes and information in brackets were added by the translator]

1 Since the 16th century, especially as far as the Capuchins and the Borromean league asserted their influence, St. Martin was repressed by other saints. [The Capuchins are a religious order; the Borromean league was an alliance of 7 Catholic cantons (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, Fribourg, Solothurn) in 1586]

2 In 1542 Jakob Marti appeared as Luzerne’s envoy to the Diet.

3 National Councillor Marti.

4 The 1920 handbook for Swiss clergymen lists as Swiss clergymen 4 Martis, 4 Martys, 5 Martins, and 1 Martig.

5 Fridolin Bäldi, in his chronicles (number 43), named a Hans Marti as one of five builders who in 1513 and 1514 had erected the great dam which had defended the village of Glarus against flooding on the Linth river.

6 A "Butter-register" of 1536 mentions also a Christen Marty, who had to give the church a measure of butter on his goods in the common land. However, it is the name Hans that had been handed down in the Marti family.

7 The Sechser [Six] formed the appointed council for the administration of the church.

8 According to the information of Pastor Hösli, the descendants of Jakob Marti, original immigrant into Elm, have died out in the male line.

9 According to information from Pastor Bollinger the Martis moved into Bilten around 1650 and, indeed, "from the valley". They are said to be descendants of Matthäus, who was born in 1609 as the son of Matthäus [Matthias] Marti and Margreth Elmer and who died in 1669, who relocated as a master tailor from Engi to Bilten.

a Neuner means "one of nine".

10 Besides in Glarus, Ennenda and in the communes of the Sernf valley, there were 9 in Bilten, 1 at Sool, 3 in Schwanden, 2 each in Mollis and Mühlehorn, and 1 each in Diesbach and Mitlödi.

11 [Discussed in the chapter on the Elmers]

12 This discussion reminds me of the probably lively Swiss negotiations with the Entente and with Germany in the years 1915 and 1916, and the foundation of the S.S.S. [Société Suisse de Surveillance économique], which was supposed to oversee that supplies which the Swiss would deliver would not be passed on to the enemy.

b A banneret was a civil official in some old Swiss cantons.

13 In the time that Marti held the position of cantonal vice-president (1661-64) J. H. Elmer was cantonal president [discussed in the chapter on the Elmers]. Both Elmer and Marti, therefore, often had to represent Canton Glarus jointly, with Elmer as the representative of the Evangelicals and Marti as the representative of the Catholics. In this latter capacity he also attended a conference of the Catholic cantons in 1662, to which he presented complaints against his "cantonal people of another religion" and thereby occasioned a "letter with accompanying threats " to Evangelical Glarus. Confederation Decrees VI, page 551.

c Landsgemeinde is the Swiss term for the cantonal legislative body in Glarus, known in English as the „Popular Assembly". All voting citizens participate as a group.

14 Zürich got frosty afterwards that this Immi regulation in part had already passed in Zürich, before it was passed in the Confederation. In the agreement of 1440 the Immi expressly would have been kept in reserve and would naturally have been paid by everybody, citizen or foreigner. At the time of a rise in price, in 1546 and 1547, the three old cantons had asked Zürich that, according to house custom, grain being transported be let through Immi-free out of good will and not on the part of the courts.

15 A Mütt = 4 old quarters of grain = 16 "heads".

16 Proof.

17 Confederation Decrees of 1732.

18 The old cantonal president was an ex-officio member of the bar.

19 For the selection of the cantonal vice-president, until now only 3 had been chosen in Lauis.

d For a discussion of the Stillstand see Baumgartner’s lecture on The Marti, under „Charity Official".

20 [Discussed in the chapter on the Elmers and above].

21 J. Dierauer, Story of the Swiss Confederation IV, page 113f, 117f.

22 S. O. Erismann in the "Pages of the Bernese History, Art and Classical Studies, 12th issue, vol. 1.

e Tagwen – an ancient term, from at least the 6th century A.D., which is still used today in Canton Glarus to denote the commune of the citizens, i.e. those who have inherited or purchased the Tagwen rights (this may only partially coincide with the political commune). It is derived from Tage Wann, meaning the work someone could perform in one day in the commonly-held fields, pastures and forests. Over the years the number of Tagwen in the canton has varied considerably, with the present-day number being 29. Also its duties have changed – from jointly working on and enjoying the benefits of its common property, to administering all the commune’s public interests, to (today) administering and enjoying the benefits of its common property.

23 3 Batzen = 10 Shillings. [1 Batzen = 4 Kreutzer]

24 was endorsed.

25 The St. Gallen Oertli was 12 Schillings, the Zürich Oertli (Züribock) = 13 Schillings. Which of these two Oertlis Streiff proposed, his journal doesn’t say. [An Oertli was a coin equaling ¼ of a Zürich Gulden]

26 confirmed = endorsed.

27 In 1772 he was made a major general and 1781-86 leader of the Fifth Regiment, formerly Stürler (in 1756-81, under Louis Bauquet from Roll), O. Erismann, loc. cit., page 16.

28 M. Schuler judged him even more sharply, loc. cit., page 370: „He was too mild and too yielding against lawbreakers and thereby exercised detrimental influence. There was in him too much of the so-called philosophical fashion of mind, which was operating strongly at that time.

29 Since the Diet usually met in Baden, a cantonal official had greater importance – confederately – for them there.

30 As it seems, according to the peasants, Major and innkeeper of „The Eagle" David Marti possessed „a good ticket of admission". In 1749, as the harmful consequences of excessive trees felled were put all too plainly to the session, the Landsgemeinde had decided that, at the risk of incurring a 100 dollar fine, no more wood would be allowed to be sold outside the canton. Contrary to this prohibition, innkeeper of „The Eagle" Marti continued with his wood business. The 1751 Landsgemeinde therefore confirmed the prohibition enacted in 1749, but permitted innkeeper of „The Eagle" Marti his large stock of wood, which he had ready for transportation outside the canton, to be sold there. It decided on such „mercy" towards Marti although he had known the decision of the Landsgemeinde since 1749, so others naturally came at once and asked for equal mercy, through which the prohibition of the Landsgemeinde became illusory.

31 The council chose as such Joh. Jakob Zweifel, later cantonal president.

32 That the swearing in should not have been in Glarus, but in Zürich instead, was for Glarus a small, but well-deserved, humiliation. Through its system of imposing taxes by its elected cantonal officials, the Landsgemeinde was accessory to the injustices practiced by the cantonal official [dicussed in the chapter on the Elmers].

33 With the addition that, since he had not desired the office, he was not subject to the Stillstand, which was imposed upon the cantonal official.

34 Major and Cantonal Official Melchior Marti was, according to the Glarus pastor’s register, the son of Cantonal President Jakob Marti [see above].

35 As a superior officer in the foreign military service we meet on occasion Lieutenant Colonel Joh. Marti, who, together with Master Sergeant Dietr. Heer, applied in the 1765 Landsgemeinde for the approval to be allowed to recruit two companies for the French service under common command; see G. Heer, Story of Canton Glarus II, pg. 93.

36 As it appears, the above-mentioned amount was a year’s rent of the real estate which he had acquired in the meadowland.

37 Since it was impossible during a fairly long time to invest the capital at 4½ %, Marti’s postulated amount of 177,286 fl. = 333,969 Fr. will not have been attained in the year 1927.

38 Since for a time no one wanted to receive money at 4½ %, for the last four years the entire capital turned out to be invested by the canton.

39 G. Heer, Story of the Glarner Elementary School System, pg. 21f.

40 G. Heer, Story of Canton Glarus II, pg. 31.

41 G. Heer, New Glarner Story I, pg. 32ff.

f The Fahrtsfeier, a major annual event in Canton Glarus, commemorates the dead at the battle of Näfels on April 9, 1388. It occurs on the first Thursday in April, unless this Thursday falls in Holy Week, when it then occurs on the Thursday after Easter.

42 His doctoral dissertation dealt with the cause of Choreae (St. Vitus Dance).

43 Dr. Barth. Marti also would obviously have gladly become cantonal president. However, the people of Lauis were not favorable to him, in that, instead of him, Christof Streiff received the golden globe and with it the office. Precisely this person – hence his competitor – narrated in his journal: „The bearer of food appeared phony, one sized up as winning in Glarus, where the same Dr. Marti became vice-president. Indeed, they had to do very heavy eating and drinking in his house. This pleasure took about an hour until Balz Heer and Adam Kundert came here together and presented the actual report. His desire to rule was all too great." And, we add, the gloating of his competitor was obviously not all too small.

44 Administrator of a place which healed unnatural bodily openings.

45 Administrator of the same place.

46 The cowpox vaccination was, as is well know, the invention of the English doctor, Jenner.

47 According to a summary by teacher D. Bäbler, these were found from the Marti family in 1595-1817: 12 church officials (president and administrator of the church commune), 23 Tagwen officials (at the same time communal president), and 8 councillors.

48 Her discovery could be reported first in the Book of Death in May of the same year.

g The official change from the old (Julian) to the new (Gregorian) calendar took place in Glarus as late as 1724. Consequently during some time period around this year both calendars were used in different sources, resulting in date differences of 11 days.

49 This same preference misled the Otts to pick an otter and the Luchsingers, a lynx, on their coats of arms.


Return to Heer Index Page / see also Baumgartner's notes on the Martis and Noms de famille Suisses: Marti.


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